The Syndics of the Staalmeesters of the drapers guild(1662). Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn (1606-1669)
Rembrandts painting of a group of sampling officials of Amsterdam cloth makers has been considered a snapshot of a real event in other words, substitute imagery.
Benjamin Binstock found through X-rays and analysis of Rembrandts sketches that the artist struggled with the painting as an artistic composition that self-consciously reflects on portraiture as a process in space and time.
(Binstock, Benjamin, Seeing Representations; Or, The Hidden Master in Rembrandts Syndics. in Representations © 2003 University of California Press)