1.2 Internet acronyms and abbreviations

Domain Name System. It is a system that allows Internet users to type in regular names for websites and other resources rather than an IP address number. It is hierarchical, starting with top-level domains such as .com, .edu, .net and .org, among others.
HyperText Markup Language. A markup language is a way of formatting text and pictures by entering instructions called tags. HTML is the markup language Web browsers understand.
HyperText Transfer Protocol. When your computer sends and receives data across the Internet, it follows the HTTP standard.
HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. This is the transfer protocol used for ebusiness and for sending sensitive information. It includes procedures for verifying users.
Internet Service Provider. A company that for a fee provides access to the Internet. Early ISPs such as America Online were accessible through plain old telephone service POTS. Today more and more homes have broadband service, either through a digital subscriber line DSL or a cable modem.
Local area network. A network of computers independent of the Internet. The computers communicate among themselves. The LAN also can be a connected to an ISP or directly to the Internet through a Net Access Point NAP.
modulator-demodulator. A modem encodes digital information into impulses that can be transmitted over phone lines or cable. Examples include dial-up modems, DSL modems and cable modems. They all work in similar ways through “handshakes” with the modem at the other end of the line.

The Internet POP gear at Awassa, Ethiopia, funded by a United Nations Development Program to connect Awassa, Jimma, Bahr Dar and Mekele to the Net.

Net Access Point. IHome > A public network exchange facility where Internet Service Providers (ISPs) can connect with one another. The NAPs are a key component of the Internet backbone because the connections within them determine how traffic is routed. They also are points of most Internet congestion.
Plain Old Telephone Service. Also known as dial-up service. It was the first way to access ISPs, and the slowest.
Point of Presence. Physically, it is a rack full of modems. The POP is a place for local users to access the company’s network through a DSL or TV cable.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP defines the rule computers must follow to communicate with each other over the internet. Your Browser and Server use TCP/IP to the Internet. A browser uses TCP/IP to access a server. A server uses TCP/IP to send HTML back to a browser. Your e-mail program uses TCP/IP to connect to the Internet for sending and receiving e-mails. Your Internet address “” is a part of the standard TCP/IP protocol, and so is your domain name.