essay Hitler essay

Surrounding Futura's creation, Germany was struggling between traditional and modernity. Typefaces used in Germany under Hitler were restricted to traditional gothic and roman styles. Paul Renner sought to move towards grotesk (sans-serif) typefaces to modernize typography. Renner opposed the Nazis and wasn’t afraid to show it. In his opposition he created a pamphlet called “Cultural Bolshevism” that criticized the Nazi movement. His essay, titled in German as “Kulturbolschewismus”, refers to a common phrase used by conservatives and national socialists to exclaim that modern art is “non-gemanic.” Renner uses his essay to bring attention to Hitler’s campaign against modern art and point out that it’s racist and dangerous. Following its publishing in 1932, a year later the Nazis labeled Renner as “an intellectual subversive" otherwise known as a ‘”Cultural Bolshevist.”

He was then dismissed from his principle position at the Masters School for Germany's Printers (meisterschule für deutschlands buchdrucker) in Munich and went into internal exile couldn’t hold a normal job for life. The Nazis then went on to shut down the entire Bauhaus school. Paul Renner then spent his time working with graphic design and in 1939 he published The Art of Typography (Die Kunst der Typographie.)